## 2D Element Stress Results

The method of calculating the stresses and forces in 2D elements depends to a certain extent on the solution method. The stresses are based on the strains, which in turn are based on the displacement gradients in the element. The stresses are calculated at the Gaussian integration points and then extrapolated to the nodes. Depending on the solution GSA either calculates the force and moment results from the stresses or by direct integration through the thickness of the element.